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Napping Notes and References

This page contains cited studies and additional information for the post How to Take the Perfect Nap for Performance, Mood and Memory.


  1. Patricia Tassi and Alain Muzet, “Sleep Inertia,” Sleep Medicine Reviews 4, no. 4 (August 1, 2000): 341–53, doi:10.1053/smrv.2000.0098.
  2. Aoi Fushimi and Mitsuo Hayashi, “Pattern of Slow-Wave Sleep in Afternoon Naps,” Sleep and Biological Rhythms 6, no. 3 (July 1, 2008): 187–89, doi:10.1111/j.1479-8425.2008.00350.x.
  3. Amber Brooks and Leon Lack, “A Brief Afternoon Nap Following Nocturnal Sleep Restriction: Which Nap Duration Is Most Recuperative?,” Sleep 29, no. 6 (June 2006): 831–40.
  4. Nicole Lovato and Leon Lack, “The Effects of Napping on Cognitive Functioning,” Progress in Brain Research 185 (2010): 155–66, doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53702-7.00009-9.
  5. Loretta DiPietro et al., “Three 15-Min Bouts of Moderate Postmeal Walking Significantly Improves 24-H Glycemic Control in Older People at Risk for Impaired Glucose Tolerance,” Diabetes Care 36, no. 10 (October 1, 2013): 3262–68, doi:10.2337/dc13-0084.
  6. Tomohide Yamada, Shojima Nobuhiro, and Kadowaki Takashi, “Daytime Napping, Daytime Sleepiness and the Risk of Metabolic Diseases: Dose-Response Meta-Analysis Using Restricted Cubic Spline Model,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 67, no. 13_S (April 2016): 1951–1951.
  7. Tomohide Yamada et al., “Daytime Napping and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: A Prospective Study and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis,” Sleep 38, no. 12 (December 1, 2015): 1945–53, doi:10.5665/sleep.5246.
  8. Björn Rasch and Jan Born, “About Sleep’s Role in Memory,” Physiological Reviews 93, no. 2 (April 2013): 681–766, doi:10.1152/physrev.00032.2012.
  9. Hiuyan Lau, Matthew A. Tucker, and William Fishbein, “Daytime Napping: Effects on Human Direct Associative and Relational Memory,” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 93, no. 4 (May 2010): 554–60, doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2010.02.003.
  10. Hiuyan Lau, Sara E. Alger, and William Fishbein, “Relational Memory: A Daytime Nap Facilitates the Abstraction of General Concepts,” PloS One 6, no. 11 (2011): e27139, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027139.
  11. Bryce A. Mander et al., “Wake Deterioration and Sleep Restoration of Human Learning,” Current Biology : CB 21, no. 5 (March 8, 2011): R183–84, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.01.019.
  12. Gordon B. Feld and Susanne Diekelmann, “Sleep Smart—optimizing Sleep for Declarative Learning and Memory,” Cognitive Science 6 (2015): 622, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00622.
  13. Sara E. Alger, Hiuyan Lau, and William Fishbein, “Slow Wave Sleep during a Daytime Nap Is Necessary for Protection from Subsequent Interference and Long-Term Retention,” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 98, no. 2 (September 2012): 188–96, doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2012.06.003.
  14. L. A. Reyner and J. A. Horne, “Suppression of Sleepiness in Drivers: Combination of Caffeine with a Short Nap,” Psychophysiology 34, no. 6 (November 1997): 721–25.
  15. Kosuke Kaida et al., “Self-Awakening Prevents Acute Rise in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate at the Time of Awakening in Elderly People,” Industrial Health 43, no. 1 (January 2005): 179–85.
  16. Björn Rasch et al., “Odor Cues During Slow-Wave Sleep Prompt Declarative Memory Consolidation,” Science 315, no. 5817 (March 9, 2007): 1426–29, doi:10.1126/science.1138581.
  17. Susanne Diekelmann et al., “Offline Consolidation of Memory Varies with Time in Slow Wave Sleep and Can Be Accelerated by Cuing Memory Reactivations,” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 98, no. 2 (September 2012): 103–11, doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2012.07.002.
  18. Matthew A. Tucker and William Fishbein, “Enhancement of Declarative Memory Performance Following a Daytime Nap Is Contingent on Strength of Initial Task Acquisition,” Sleep 31, no. 2 (February 2008): 197–203.

Additional nap studies mentioned in the post:

  • Mark R. Rosekind et al., “Alertness Management: Strategic Naps in Operational Settings,” Journal of Sleep Research 4 (December 1, 1995): 62–66, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.1995.tb00229.x.
  • Denise J. Cai et al., “REM, Not Incubation, Improves Creativity by Priming Associative Networks,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, no. 25 (June 23, 2009): 10130–34, doi:10.1073/pnas.0900271106.
  • Masaya Takahashi, Hideki Fukuda, and Heihachiro Arito, “Brief Naps during Post-Lunch Rest: Effects on Alertness, Performance, and Autonomic Balance,” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 78, no. 2 (1998): 93–98.
  • Mitsuo Hayashi, Makiko Watanabe, and Tadao Hori, “The Effects of a 20 Min Nap in the Mid-Afternoon on Mood, Performance and EEG Activity,” ResearchGate 110, no. 2 (March 1, 1999): 272–79, doi:10.1016/S1388-2457(98)00003-0.
  • Matthew A. Tucker et al., “A Daytime Nap Containing Solely Non-REM Sleep Enhances Declarative but Not Procedural Memory,” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 86, no. 2 (September 2006): 241–47, doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2006.03.005.

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